6 Different Types of Foundations for Construction Projects
Foundations are often described as shallow or deep structures in the ground. There are six different types of building foundations in construction, all of which have different uses.
The two categories of which these are divided into, are the shallow and deep foundations.
1.The shallow foundations
- Combined footing
- Raft or mat foundation
- Individual footing/ isolated footing
- Strip foundation
2.The deep foundations
- Drilled shafts/ caissons
- Pile foundation
– Combined Footing
This foundation is constructed into two columns or more. If these get too close to one another, footings will overlap one another. These are generally isolated, but when it comes to their structures, they differ. It is generally also the shape of a rectangle and is used when a structure’s load gets supported by the columns.
– Raft or mat foundation
This type is spread across the area of a building and supports heavier loads, which most commonly, are walls and columns.
It gets used to prevent the differential settlement of individual footings and is intended to be a single mat/ combined footing, made from the load-bearing elements of the substructure/ building.
– Individual footing/ isolated footing
As the most common type of foundation, it is used for building construction in general. It is constructed for single columns and referred to as a pad foundation.
The shape of the individual footing is generally square but can also be a rectangle. This type gets carried or supported by the columns.
– Spread, strip and wall footings
A spread footing has a wider base and has a more typical load-bearing type of wall foundation. Its wider base provides improved stability because it can distribute weight from a building structure, over a much larger area. These are used for individual columns, bridge piers, and walls.
– Drilled shafts/ caisson foundation
Drilled shafts are a deep type of foundation. This type can easily resist loads from structures, using shaft or toe resistance, and sometimes, even both.
This construction type is usually carried out using an auger.
– Pile foundations
Pile foundations are very deep and get used to transferring heavier loads. This transfer takes place between a structure to a hard rock strata, which is far deeper than other foundations, below ground level.
These are used to transfer heavier loads through columns, which eventually gets delivered to hard soil strata, below ground level.
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